By James C. Lin

The aim of this fourth quantity within the sequence Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in dwelling structures remains similar to earlier volumes: so as to add a couple of major advances during this region of study to clinical literature.

In normal, the interplay of electromagnetic fields and waves with organic structures is frequency-dependent. additionally, the mechanisms of interplay for fields at low frequencies are very various from these at excessive frequencies. whereas major advances are being made on many fronts, a distinct emphasis of this quantity is on present and destiny biomedical functions of electromagnetic fields, ranging in frequency from quasi-static to the optical area. each one bankruptcy involves a finished presentation of an issue of present curiosity and turning out to be significance.

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In other words, a magnetic flux applied to the flux transformer will be compensated by a superconducting current, which 20 Maria J. Peters et al. SQUID superconducting shield superconducting wire Magnetic flux Figure 12. An example of a flux transformer, a first-order gradiometer. generates a counterbalancing flux. The superconducting current is linear proportional to the applied magnetic flux. The input coil is a small coil that is positioned on top of the SQUID. The superconducting current in this coil generates a magnetic flux, which in turn is linear proportional to the superconducting current.

21 the x-component of the magnetic field is depicted for all three current dipole components. This x-component of the magnetic field is the component perpendicular to the front of the abdomen and is the one that is usually measured. The magnetic field maps display a wide variety in patterns. Not only do the patterns change, the amplitudes of the distributions vary over a wide range. 36 Maria J. Peters et al. 5 1 ×10−6 Figure 21. The distribution of the z-component of the magnetic field due to a dipole in the x, y or z direction.

About 40 percent of the fetuses have this position at the end of gestation. 3. Modeling the Fetal Heart Electrical Activity As the heart of the newborn has not had any time to adapt to the different pressure distribution in the heart, the electrical activity in the heart of the newborn should resemble that of the fetus. Therefore, the current dipole may be obtained from vector ECGs measured shortly after birth. Vector ECGs were measured by Namin [1996] in 100 subjects 30 hours after birth and by DePasquale and Burch [1963] in 50 subjects within the first week of life.

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Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems by James C. Lin
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