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Additional info for PET : physics, instrumentation, and scanners
For a constant noise level in the PMTs and electronics, the signal-to-noise of the signals being used to calculate the position is therefore poorer and the positioning accuracy is degraded. With a 10-mm thick NaI(Tl) crystal, it is possible to achieve an intrinsic spatial resolution as high as ϳ3 mm; at 25 mm thickness this degrades to 4 to 5 mm (Dr. Joel Karp, unpublished observation). Special efforts must also be made with the electronics to allow this large-area detector to handle multiple events occuring in different parts of the detector at the same time.
The problem for the application of MWPCs in PET has largely been achieving sufficient efficiency in conjunction with difficulties in matching the counting-rate performance, timing resolution, and energy resolution of scintillation detectors. To improve efficiency, multiple MWPC units have been stacked on top of each other, but even so, the efficiency of these detectors is typically on the order of 1% to 2%, compared to the 30% to 90% efficiency typical of scintillation detectors at 511 keV. Some of this efficiency loss can however be compensated by the good solid angle coverage of these large area detectors when placed in a scanner configuration.
This uncertainty in response or time resolution depends on the characteristics of the detector, primarily scintillation decay time constant and light output (Scintillators, p. 17). Furthermore, small differences are noted in the arrival times of the two photons depending on the difference in the distance of the annihilation site to each detector (Annihilation, p. 5). To avoid missing coincidence events, the logic pulses must have a certain finite width to ensure that the pulses overlap despite the finite time resolution.
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