By Edward Carterette (Eds.)

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Neural circuits are formed by connections between neurons made at specialized structures called synapses; it is at the synapse that information flows from one nerve cell to another. A synapse, then, is a three-part structure consisting of (7) the axon terminals of one neuron, (2) the adjacent membrane of the dendrite or soma of another neuron, and (3) the 200400 A space between these two neurons (see Fig. 3). This space between the axon terminal and dendrite or soma membrane is termed the synaptic cleft and is bordered by the presynaptic membrane of the axon terminal and the postsynaptic membrane of the dendrite and soma.

B. Medical physiology. Vol. II. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 1968. Ochs, S. Elements of neurophysiology. New York: Wiley, 1965. , Shepherd, G. , Reese, T. , & Brightman, M. W. Dendrodendritic synaptic pathway for inhibition in the olfactory bulb. Experimental Neurology, 1966, 14, 44-56. Ralston, H. , Ill, & Herman, M. M. The fine structure of neurons and synapses in the ventrobasal thalamus of the cat. Brain Research, 1969, 14, 77-98. Ruch, T. C , & Patton, H. D. ). Physiology and biophysics. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders, 1965.

The analysis of systems which work quite differently from reflexes. The most important of these are systems of centrally generated sequences which require little or no feedback from the periphery. Almost all invertebrate movement seems to be controlled in this way, so far as analyzed at neuron level. Sometimes activity of a single cell causes a whole pattern of activity, such as swimming.

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Biology of Perceptual Systems by Edward Carterette (Eds.)
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