By Rob Peters (auth.)

` a unprecedented e-book mendacity on the interface among ecology and palaeoecology that merits a spot within the forests component to your library.'
The Holocene, 8:4 (1998)

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In cool temperate Europe, frost resistance of flowers in Acer pseudoplatanus (April), Quercus robur (Apr/May) and Fraxinus excelsior (Apr/May) is -2 to -3°C. 5°C. , 1964). Late spring frost may restrict beech in areas with sufficiently high summer temperatures and humidity. Seed production and survival of seedlings are affected by climate. An indication for this climatic regulation of seed production is the synchronization of major seed years (mast years) over large areas. Between 1839 and 1963, in about 15 years large seed production was synchronized in Danish, English and German beech forests (Wachter, 1964).

Petersb. 9). 3. Fagus okamotoi Shen (1992) is a multistemmed tree closely related to Fagus japonica, and found in central Honshu, Japan. 6); some characteristics are prominently winged nuts and short petioles of leaves on sterile shoots: 4. Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (1788. Beytr. Naturk. 10). It includes Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana Camp (Little, 1965; Shen, 1992) from Mexico. 5); some characteristics are broad, blunt buds, and papiIlate-glaucosity on the lower leaf surface: 31 5. Fagus longipetiolata Seemen (1897.

197 I), and, later, only during the Holsteinian and the Holocene. In Europe, pollen-fossils show that during warmer interglacials, the ranges of Fagus (Holsteinian) and Tilia platyphyllos (Eemian) extended far north of their Holocene ranges (Sauer, 1988). 2. H. Zagwijn, pers. ). The present Fagus interglacial (420,000sylvalica range is shaded. 303,000 years BP), Fagus spread further to Fagus engleriana from the Chinese, but this did not the west (Ireland) and the east (Russia) than its yield different species.

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Beech Forests by Rob Peters (auth.)
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