By Kieko Matteson
This publication investigates the industrial, strategic, and political significance of forests in early smooth and sleek Europe and indicates how struggles over this very important typical source either formed and mirrored the ideologies and results of France's lengthy innovative interval. till the mid-nineteenth century, wooden used to be the significant gas for cooking and heating and the first fabric for production around the world and comprised each that you can think of portion of commercial, family, army, and maritime task. Forests additionally supplied crucial pasturage. those multifaceted values made forests the topic of ongoing battles for keep an eye on among the crown, landowning elites, and peasantry, for whom liberty intended protecting their rights to wooded area commons. concentrating on Franche-Comté, France's easternmost province, the booklet explores the fiercely contested improvement of state-centered conservation and administration from 1669 to 1848. In emphasizing the environmental underpinnings of France's seismic sociopolitical upheavals, it appeals to readers drawn to revolution, rural existence, and common-pool-resource governance
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This publication investigates the commercial, strategic, and political significance of forests in early glossy and sleek Europe and indicates how struggles over this important average source either formed and mirrored the ideologies and results of France's lengthy progressive interval. till the mid-nineteenth century, wooden was once the vital gasoline for cooking and heating and the first fabric for production around the globe and comprised each conceivable component to commercial, family, army, and maritime task.
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Additional info for Forests in revolutionary France : conservation, community, and conflict 1669-1848
While some of the provisos supported inhabitants’ needs, including rights to gather ﬁrewood and graze ﬂocks in the woods, others assured persistent inequity, like the obligatory labor-service known as the corvée, and mortmain, which guaranteed seigneurs’ inalienable 9 10 Jean Rousseau and Michel Bouvier, La grande forêt de Chaux: Ses riverains, ses usagers, ses gardiens (Dole: Les Presses Jurassiennes, 1980); René Schaeffer, “La forêt résineuse comtoise et la politique forestière au XVIIIème siècle,” Bulletin de la Société Forestière de Franche-Comté et des Provinces de l’est 34, no.
McKean, and Elinor Ostrom (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000), 233. See parallels in Ramachandra Guha, The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990); and K. Sivaramakrishnan, Modern Forests: Statemaking and Environmental Change in Colonial Eastern India (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999), 34–71 and 121–44. For a look at the complexities involved, see Roderick P. Neumann, “Land, Justice, and the Politics of Conservation in Tanzania,” in People, Plants, and Justice: The Politics of Nature Conservation, ed.
46 The Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) was a particularly low point. Though not a central theater of battle, Franche-Comté was subject to repeated invasion by French, German, and Swedish armies who crisscrossed the territory, besieged towns, appropriated supplies, and leveled villages. 47 Nonetheless, the calamities had a silver lining for the forest: if wood consumption had continued at its earlier rate, Franche-Comté would have faced a fuel and timber crisis as great as the one emerging in neighboring France.
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