By Francesco Paolo Rossini M.D. (auth.)

by Mario Banche, M.D. IX The neologism "coloscopy" (colonscopy, colonoscopy) is the newest addition to the vocabulary of endoscopy of the massive gut. simply because the time period "duodenoscopy" was once in endoscopy of the higher digestive tract many years in the past. With the arrival of the coloscope it truly is now attainable to check the massive bowel extra generally and successfully than used to be previously attainable with using its inflexible forerunner, the rectosigmoidoscope. The earliest rectoscopes, eleven endoscopes" brought through the nineteenth century through Segales and Desormeaux (1826, 1853), have been conceived for plenty of uses-inspection of the urethra, bladder, uterus, rectum. Successive advancements ultimately resulted in the development of an software designed completely for endoscopy of the rectum and sigmoid colon (Bensaude, 1907). Over the subsequent years the rectoscope underwent no giant swap and hence an considerable and homogeneous literature accumulated during which the to be had tools and their use have been defined whereas the endoscopic pathologic nosography and corresponding endoscopic photos of the rectum and sigmoid colon have been codified, illustrated first via easy sketches and later through nonetheless and movement images. The literature comprises many fantastic guides, a few in monograph form.

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Sample text

The hepatic flexure has a characteristic pagoda-like appearance due to the arrangement of its haustral folds. The ascending colon is larger than the left colon and is lined with a mucosa forming semicircular folds. The cecum has the appearance of a large cul-de-sac, crossed by large folds which divide it up into pouch-like recesses. The cecum contains the orifice of the appendix. It is round-shaped and hidden under a mucosal fold. The orifice of the ileum is situated on the wall of the ascending colon, about 10 cm from the cecum.

Adhesions due to previous abdominal surgery. Partial stenosis or adhesions due to perivisceritis. 39 Complications Perforation Perforation can be caused by: a) direct impact of the coloscope against the wall of the large bowel; b) excessive insufflation of air; c) injury by the biopsy forceps; d) rupture of a diverticulum; e) during polypectomy. The most serious complication of coloscopy is perforation. Perforation may be due to rupture of the bowel wall under the impact of the tip of the coloscope or on account of the excessive insufflation of air.

The shaft of the coloscope is then rotated counterclockwise and simultaneously withdrawn thus pulling the sigmoid colon downwards and straightening out the bends which impeded progression of the instrument towards the descending colon. The coloscope must not be pushed forwards when it is looped up in the sigmoid colon because progression would become more and more difficult and painful and would eventually cause impaction of the tip and make it impossible to manoeuvre it by means of the external controls.

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Atlas of coloscopy by Francesco Paolo Rossini M.D. (auth.)
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