By Augusto Sampaio, Amast-Fund

This e-book investigates the layout of compilers for procedural languages, in accordance with the algebraic legislation which those languages fulfill. the actual procedure followed is to lessen an arbitrary resource software to a common common shape, able to representing an arbitrary aim computer. this can be completed through a sequence of ordinary shape relief theorems that are proved algebraically from the extra uncomplicated legislation. the traditional shape and the similar relief theorems can then be instantiated to layout compilers for unique goal machines. This constitutes the most novelty of the author's method of compilation, including the truth that the whole strategy is formalised inside of a unmarried and uniform semantic framework of a procedural language and its algberaic legislation. moreover, via mechanising the technique utilizing the OBJ3 time period rewriting method it really is proven prototype compiler is constructed as a byproduct of its personal facts of correctness.

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For portable programs the use of a SIGN clause is recommended (see your manual). If we wish to print or display signed values then we would normally move them first to a numeric edited item with appropriate sign characters (see chapter 9). 5 Arithmetic Verbs Four arithmetic verbs ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY and DIVIDE, are available. The presence of these verbs is an indication of the age of COBOL and of its similarity in some respects to the assembly language that it was designed to replace. As has previously been indicated, the verb COMPUTE is adequate for all possible computation and should be easy to use by those with experience of Pascal and other high-level languages.

3 Fixed-point Arithmetic So far, all arithmetic declarations have been confined to integral values. COBOL provides for fixed-point arithmetic, and items which require a decimal point should be declared using a V (virtual point) in the picture clause. 5 DATA DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 01 WS-UNIT-COST 01 WS-QUANTITY 01 WS-TOTAL-COST PIC PIC PIC 99V99. 999. 9 (5)V99. 99 to be stored in WS-TOTAL-COST. Within the range allowed, complete accuracy is provided. All calculations and moves involving items containing a virtual point will be aligned on the point.

2 Paragraphs and the PERFORM Verb An approximate COBOL equivalent to a procedure or subroutine is the paragraph which may be called by use of the PERFORM verb. There are a 29 30 Program Structures PROGRAM Produceinvoice (Input,Output); (*Data for the program not yet declared*) (*each procedure is a template only *) PROCEDURE Inputitems; (*This procedure accepts up to 5 item codes and the unit-costs and quantity for each item from the keyboard*) BEGIN END; (*Inputitems*) PROCEDURE CalculateCost; (*This procedure calculates the cost of each item,adding VAT and the invoice total*) BEGIN END; (*CalculateCost *) PROCEDURE Printinvoice; (*This procedure prints an invoice*) BEGIN END; (*Printinvoice*) BEGIN Input Items; CalculateCost; Printinvoice END.

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An algebraic approach to compiler design by Augusto Sampaio, Amast-Fund
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