By Philip Haygarth, Steven C Jarvis
This ebook is a suite of cutting-edge experiences at the worldwide difficulties of diffuse water pollutants from agriculture, which impacts the water caliber of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and the oceans. It comprises chapters on eutrophication, phosphorus, nitrogen, manure, heavy metals, carbon/persistent natural pollution and soil/siltation difficulties. The booklet is damaged down into 3 components and displays the critiques of the world's specialists in those matters.
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Extra resources for Agriculture, Hydrology and Water Quality
Kg N haϪ1 yearϪ1). , 1997). Year 1998 1999 2000 2002 2005 2008 Arable Grassland 175 300 175 300 150 275 (125) (250) (110) (200) (100) (180) Within the UK, the main practical ideas for reducing NO3Ϫ leaching have been tested voluntarily in Nitrate Sensitive Areas (NSAs) and, from December 1998, enforced in 68 Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) covering 600,000 ha. , 2000). Limits for N application rates and on the timing of manure applications have been defined and are monitored for these zones. 10).
This presents a serious problem in highly weathered soils rich in Al and Fe oxides, like Ferralsols and Sesquisols, especially in tropical regions. Low molecular organic anions and higher molecular organic acids such as fulvic and humic acids compete with PO 43Ϫ and, possibly, organic P compounds, for sorption sites. Furthermore, chelating organic compounds may also contribute to the desorption of PO 43Ϫ. Hence, agronomic treatments that enhance soil organic matter content often also improve PO 43Ϫ availability.
Direct comparison between studies is often difficult because of the differences in P forms extracted by the various extraction methods employed in these studies (Cade-Menun and Preston, 1996). , 1994). , 1982). The basic sequential extraction starts with the removal of PO 43Ϫ ions by an anion exchange resin (resin P). The following NaHCO3 and NaOH extracts usually contain inorganic and organic P, which are considered as labile and moderately labile fractions, respectively (Cross and Schlesinger, 1995).
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