By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unrivaled within the annals of event go back and forth. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. great attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage throughout the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from worldwide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are special. a last part describes Antarctica this day, detailing the natural world and geology of a area that's drawing progressively more viewers who, just like the adventurers sooner than them, are serious about the isolation, attractiveness, and problem of the continent.

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Queen Elizabeth secretly approved his plan. The tenuous peace between England and Spain did not prevent her, or others, from investing heavily in Drake’s expedition. As he readied his fleet of five ships, spies for Spain tried to uncover the true purpose of the voyage but were unsuccessful. Even the seamen who signed on thought they were headed to Alexandria to pick up a cargo of currants. While the crew loaded the ships with supplies, Drake furnished his cabin on the Pelican with all the comforts of home—luxurious oriental rugs, brocade cushions, and lavish wall hangings.

The first “ice island” loomed through the fog on December 10, and day by day the number of bergs increased. “Sailing here is render’d very Dangerous, Excessive Cold, thick Snows, islands of Ice . . ye people 20 ANTARCTICA Numb’d,” wrote Pickersgill. Layers of ice coated the sails like plates of transparent armor and thick icicles hung from the rigging and ropes. Cold weather garb was unpacked from tightly sealed chests and distributed to the men. So, too, were the hardy viruses that had survived within the heavy folds of jackets and trousers.

For longer stays on the islands, the sealers constructed mud and tussock-grass huts, lining the walls with elephant seal hides. In the middle of the single room, chunks of blubber crackled in an iron pot that rested on a grate of seal bones. Oil from blubber fueled hand- IN SEARCH OF SEALS WITH FURTHER DISCOVERIES 31 crafted lamps, and penguin feathers functioned as wicks. Seal bladders, stretched over holes in the walls for light, soon blackened from the oily smoke. Hardship, disease, and loneliness broke bodies and minds.

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Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy
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