By David Eugene Smith

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In the ONT, a story containing a number of the target structures was employed. The participants were required to read the story twice and then to retell the story orally within 3 minutes. The TGJT and UGJT had the same content comprising 68 sentences, evenly divided between grammatical and ungrammatical. , grammatical or ungrammatical). , the TGJT had a time limit between each sentence, while the UGJT did not have any time limit). The MKT consisted of two parts. R. Ellis (2005: 157) described the two parts as follows: The first part presented participants with 17 ungrammatical sentences (one sentence per target structure) and required them to select the rule that best explained each error out of four choices provided.

Reliability concerns the consistency of the measures and Cronbach’s alpha (α) is the most commonly used method to provide estimates of internal consistency. 70). 45 for the EIT UG. Table 5: Reliability values of the tests and the sub-measures (n=92). 56 EIT : Elicited Imitation Test. EIT G : Elicitated Imitation Test grammatical items EIT UG : Elicitated Imitation Test ungrammatical items TGJT : Timed Grammaticality Judgment Test TGJT G : Timed Grammaticality Judgment Test grammatical items TGJT UG : Timed Grammaticality Judgment Test ungrammatical items UGJT : Untimed Grammaticality Judgment Test UGJT G : Untimed Grammaticality Judgment Test grammatical items UGJT UG : Untimed Grammaticality Judgment Test ungrammatical items MKT : MetalinguisticKnowledge Test Descriptive statistics for all the measures Table 6 and Figure 1 show the descriptive statistics for all the measures including the sub-measures.

2 Tests of implicit and explicit knowledge A test battery (hereinafter it is referred to as Test battery 1, since another battery was used to explore factors contributing to students’ implicit and explicit L2 knowledge) which consists of four different tests, was administered to the test takers in order to investigate their implicit and explicit grammatical knowledge. As mentioned above, two tests were devised to measure students’ implicit L2 grammatical knowledge, and the other two tests were designed to measure their explicit L2 grammatical knowledge.

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A Source Book in Mathematics: v. 2 by David Eugene Smith
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