By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Read or Download A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides PDF
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Extra info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
5). Neutrinos, which are particles of zero mass and zero charge and, therefore, have practically no interaction with matter, must be detected by more sophisticated means, but are of no immediate concern to the measurement of radioactivity. When electrons are accelerated or decelerated they also emit electromagnetic radiation known as bremsstrahlung. The beta particles or electrons, which are retarded by matter, emit photons having a range of energy from zero up to the maximum energy of the beta particles or electrons being stopped.
Photons falling on the cathode surface of the phototube are converted into electrons by the photoelectric process with an efficiency cc. 94 Only very small crystals, transparency poor. Only small crystals, yellow. Excellent crystals, hygroscopic. Excellent crystals, not hygroscopic. Excellent crystals, not hygroscopic. Excellent crystals. Hygroscopic. 3 5 Small crystals, transparency good. Not hygroscopic, very low afterglow. Not hygroscopic, very low afterglow. 'Time for light pulse to fall to l/e of initial value.
Therefore, in a parallel-plate chamber, the pulse amplitude will depend on where the ionizing particle traversed the chamber. , Frisch grid chamber) to screen the collecting electrode from the positive ions. The use of a pulse ionization chamber is limited at low particle energies by the inherent noise of the associated amplifier. This noise is equivalent to the arrival on the ionization-chamber anode of about 200 electrons, which might represent an energy of about 7 keV dissipated by a particle traversing the chamber.
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