By Joelle Rollo-Koster; Thomas M. Izbicki (editors)
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Civil violence and the initiation of the schism 27 conclave’s inauguration, leaving a small hatch in one of the doors to communicate and bring in food. 70 He retrieved it, but the effort fatigued him. He abandoned the door and returned to his room for several hours. The guards kept watch because the cardinals expected a visit from the 13 caporioni, the heads of Rome’s neighborhoods, and they indeed arrived after the closing bell rang. It was around eight o’clock at night, and the cardinals received them in one of the chapels.
The italics are mine. civil violence and the initiation of the schism 37 Monte Cassino and the cardinal of St. Peter, and the late Gregory XI in Avignon—and the pillaging of the conclave after the crowd thought that St. Peter had been elected. The pillaging of the 1378 conclave signaled some form of “closure,” even though some violence persevered. During the last moment of the conclave, when the door had been broken open, some cardinals escaped the Vatican. Once peace was restored, most of them returned quietly to the palace or to their residence, escorted by the Roman crowd, evidence that the conclave and its pillage had ended and the situation had returned to normal.
Several historians identify the agitation surrounding the conclave as a direct cause of the Schism (the violence precluded a legitimate election because the cardinals had no peace of mind), although they recognize simultaneously that the cardinals’ behavior before and after the conclave followed routine. For example, Guillaume Mollat, in his life of Clement VII for the Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastique, alludes to a charged mood in Rome at the death of Gregory, but he hesitates to lay the blame on anyone specific.
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