By Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus
Nuclear double beta decay is without doubt one of the such a lot promising instruments for probing beyond-the-standard-model physics on beyond-accelerator strength scales. it's already now probing the TeV scale, on which new physics may still present itself based on theoretical expectancies. basically within the early Eighties was once it recognized that double beta decay yields info at the Majorana mass of the exchanged neutrino. at the present, the sharpest certain for the electron neutrino mass arises from this method. it's only within the final 10 years that the even more far-reaching power of double beta decay has been found. at the present time, the possibility of double beta decay encompasses a wide diversity of issues which are both suitable to particle physics and astrophysics, corresponding to lots of heavy neutrinos, of sneutrinos, as SUSY versions, compositeness, leptoquarks, left-right symmetric types, and checks of Lorentz symmetry and equivalence precept within the neutrino quarter. Double beta decay has develop into integral these days for fixing the matter of the neutrino mass spectrum and the constitution of the neutrino mass matrix - including current and destiny sunlight and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. a few destiny double beta experiments (like Genius) may be able to be concurrently neutrino observatories for double beta decay and low-energy sun neutrinos, and observatories for chilly darkish subject of final sensitivity. This helpful booklet outlines the improvement of double beta study from its beginnings until eventually its latest achievements, and in addition provides the outlook for its hugely intriguing destiny.
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Extra resources for 60 Years of Double Beta Decay
Goldhaber using CaF2 [Mat66*-I]. The first observation of two-neutrino double beta decay in direct experiments was claimed in 1980 for mSe [Moe80], and finally achieved by Mike Moe (Fig. 9) and collaborators in 1987 [E1187a*-V]. [Hax84**-I]. Our understanding of double beta decay underwent a profound change when parity non-conservation was discovered in 1957 [Lee56], [Wu57], and the helicity of neutrinos was observed [Gol58]. The helicity mismatch between the antineutrino 9 From the Early Days until the Gauge Theory Era Fig.
This opened the way to use double beta decay as the most practical and most sensitive means of searching for Majorana neutrinos and their masses. 16 Sixty Years of Double Beta Decay + y*\. + Fig. 21 Feynman graphs of the general double beta decay rate, with long range (a-c) and short range interactions (d) (from [Pae99*-I]). ^ Fig. N. Mohapatra (left), at the Double- Beta Decay and Related Topics Conference, Trento, Italy, 1995. In the second row (from left to right): S. Jullian, S. Kovalenko, M.
Fig. 10 M. Goldhaber (middle) at the WEIN'86 Conference, Heidelberg, with the author (left) (foto author). emitted by one neutron and the neutrino to be absorbed by another neutron now forbids this process also for a Majorana neutrino as long as the latter is massless, and as long as there are no right-handed currents. Fig. 11 Tsung-Dao Lee in 1956 (left), Chien-Shung Wu in 1957 (middle) and Chen-Ming Yang in 1956 (right). This point of view dominated for about 20 years and only in the late seventies the interest in the existence -of Majorana neutrinos - and that is in double beta decay - began'to revive.
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